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Blood and Bone Marrow Transplants

Blood and bone marrow transplants (BMT) offer treatment options for diseases once thought incurable. BMT is commonly used for patients diagnosed with leukemia, aplastic anemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, immune deficiency disorders, and some solid tumors.

There are multiple types of transplants. The specific type of transplant depends on your diagnosis and condition. With all transplants, immature blood-forming cells called hematopoietic stem cells are infused into your body to help it build new healthy cells that repopulate your body with healthy, non-diseased cells. Hematopoietic stem cells build white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in your bone marrow and blood stream.

Types of Blood and Bone Marrow Transplants

There are three types of blood and bone marrow transplants:

  • Autologous stem cell transplants use your own bone marrow, which is extracted and stored for future use.
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplants use bone marrow or stem cells from a donor source. Donor sources may include family members, unrelated people, or umbilical cord blood. Testing is conducted to match the genetic makeup of the donor and the patient.
  • Syngeneic BMT uses bone marrow or stem cells from a twin.

The Transplant Procedure

The first step in a blood and bone marrow transplant procedure is apheresis. During apheresis, stem cells are extracted from the donor or patient (depending on the type of transplant), while the blood is returned to your body.

During the BMT process, your diseased bone marrow is destroyed with high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation. The healthy harvested cells are then infused back into your bloodstream.

Infusion of the stem cells may last 10 minutes to three hours, depending on the quantity and source of the cells. While the bone marrow transplant procedure itself only takes a few hours, it can take several months for the complete marrow transition. Many transplant patients require hospitalization at some point during the procedure, although the length of the hospital stay will vary based on the type of transplantation and your condition.

We have several locations for patients to receive blood and bone marrow transplants:


Patients who need blood and marrow transplants but who do not live near one of our locations offering the treatment may be able to receive initial consultations and some follow-up care from Texas Oncology via Telemedicine. While patients would need to travel for blood and marrow transplant treatment, in some cases, remote patient/physician interactions may be available, providing greater convenience and less travel for care. Texas Oncology currently offers Telemedicine to provide patients access to highly specialized care, in conjunction with a local Texas Oncology physician. Learn more about Telemedicine.

BMT Clinical Trials

Texas Oncology is a leader in ground-breaking cancer research and clinical trials in Texas paving the way for new breakthroughs in cancer care. You may be eligible to participate in a stem cell transplant clinical trial, depending on your age, sex, cancer type, stage of cancer, previous treatments, and general medical history. Click here to find a stem cell transplant clinical trial and talk with your doctor to determine if a trial is right for you.