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Side Effects of Cancer Treatment

Introduction

The treatment of a cancer may include the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, surgery, or some combination of all of these or other therapeutic options. All of these treatment options are directed at killing or eradicating cancer cells. Unfortunately, cancer treatments may also damage normal, healthy cells that are not affected by the cancer. The result of this damage is a complication, or side effect, of treatment.

Why do side effects occur?

Side effects occur because most cancer treatments cannot distinguish between cancer cells and normal, healthy cells. For example, chemotherapy damages rapidly dividing cells, a hallmark trait of cancer cells. In the process, healthy cells that are also rapidly dividing, such as blood cells and the cells lining the mouth and GI tract are also damaged. Radiation therapy kills some healthy cells that are in the path of the radiation or near the cancer being treated. Newer radiation therapy techniques can reduce, but not eliminate this damage.

Why are side effects important?

Side effects of treatment cause inconvenience, discomfort, and occasionally even fatality to patients. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, side effects may also prevent doctors from delivering the prescribed dose of therapy at the specific time and schedule of the treatment plan. This is extremely important to understand since the expected outcome from therapy is based on delivering treatment at the dose and schedule of the treatment plan. In other words, side effects not only cause discomfort and unpleasantness, but may also limit a patient’s ability to achieve the best outcome from treatment by preventing the delivery of therapy at its optimal dose and time.

Fortunately, in the last 15 years there has been a great deal of progress in the development of treatments to help prevent and control the side effects of cancer treatment. These compounds have led to vast improvements in the management of symptoms associated with cancer treatment, allowed for greater accuracy and consistency concerning the administration of cancer treatment, and have made many cancer treatments more widely available to patients throughout the world.

Common side effects

Anemia
Depression
Fatigue
Hair Loss
Infection/Fever
Low Blood Counts
Mouth Sores
Nausea and Vomiting
Neutropenia
Pain
Reproduction/Sexuality
Thrombocytopenia

 

Less common side effects

Bloodflow Problems
Bruising and Bleeding
Blood Clots
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Blood Test Abnormalities
Electrolyte Imbalance
Hypercalcemia
Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Cold or Flu Illness
Common Cold
Cough
Flu-like Syndromes
Gastrointestinal Complications
Abdominal Pains
Constipation
Diarrhea
Heartburn
Swelling
Lymphedema
Water Retention
Sexual issues
Impotence
Vaginal Dryness
Mental/Emotional Problems
Anxiety
Forgetfulness
Post-traumatic Stress
Nervous System Problems
Confusion/Delirium
Dizziness
Numbness and Tingling
Seizures
Nutritional Issues
Dry Mouth
Poor Appetite
Taste Changes
Weight Changes
Weight Gain
Weight Loss
Organ Problems
Allegric Reaction
Bladder
Bone Pain
Eyes
Ears/Hearing
Heart
Kidney
Liver
Lung
Skin Reactions
Dry Skin
Flushing
Hand-foot Syndrome
Hyperpigmentation
Injection Site Reaction
Itching
Photosensitivity
Radiation Recall
Rash

 

Long term side effects

Cardiac Toxicity
Growth Problems
Menopause
Sterility
Secondary Malignancies

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