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Nutrition to Lower Disease Risk

In 2019, cancer is expected to claim an estimated 606,880 lives in the United States. About 42 percent of those deaths could be prevented through maintaining a healthy weight, limited alcohol consumption, healthy nutrition, physical activity, and not smoking. Adopting a healthy lifestyle that includes a well-balanced diet full of nutrients that lower the risk of disease is important for overall well-being and critical to both preventing and fighting cancer. Eating certain types of foods, such as fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower cancer risk. Since studies have shown that obesity can increase cancer risk, maintaining a healthy weight can also help reduce cancer risk. American Cancer Society research found that excess body weight is responsible for 8 percent of all cancers and 7 percent of all cancer deaths in the U.S.

The following nutritional guidelines are recommended:

  • Select a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and legumes, such as:
    • Dark, leafy greens and a variety of seasonal fruits and vegetables, including berries. 
    • Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage.
  • Aim to eat a variety of at least two-and-a-half cups of fruits and vegetables per day. 
  • Limit intake of creamy dressings, sauces, and dips.
  • Reduce intake of foods high in salt and fat. 
  • Limit consumption of red meat, such as beef, pork, and lamb, and processed meats, such as lunch meat, bacon, sausage, and hot dogs. Choose fish, poultry, or beans instead.
  • Limit sugary drinks, including soft drinks, sports drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, and energy-dense foods.
  • Opt for whole grains instead of processed or refined grains.
  • Avoid large portions of high-calorie foods.
  • Limit alcohol consumption. Women should have no more than one drink per day; men no more than two drinks per day.

Nutrition for Patients Fighting Cancer

Ensuring proper nutrition during cancer treatment is critical to recovery. Some patients find maintaining good nutrition a challenge due to the side effects of some treatment regimens, such as loss of appetite or difficulty swallowing. Treatment can also affect how foods are tolerated and the body’s absorption of nutrients. A healthy diet is an essential building block for allowing the body to repair itself and lower the risk of infection. Thus, what one eats before, during, and after treatment is very important for maintaining strength. Proper nutrition for a patient undergoing treatment may be quite different than a normal diet, and it can vary depending on the patient’s specific type of cancer and treatment and the side effects they experience.

The following are recommendations for patients undergoing cancer treatment:

  • Eating plenty of proteins and calories helps the body repair tissue and maintain strength.  
  • “Good fats” like those found in vegetable oils and seafood can help the body protect tissue and carry vitamins through the bloodstream. 
  • Nutrient-rich carbohydrates, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, supply energy and promote organ health. 
  • Consuming plenty of water keeps the body hydrated, and is essential for proper cell function.
  • When considering vitamins, it’s important to consult with a physician before taking supplements or herbs.

Decisions on nutrition and supplements should be made in careful consultation with the treating physician, nurse, and/or a registered dietician.

Sources: American Cancer Society, American Institute for Cancer Research, and National Cancer Institute

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